Articles

One of our recent alumni, a PhD in Christian Education wrote the following excellent paper:

The Effects of Disabilities on Distance Learners Who Are Enrolled In Theology, Divinity, and Seminary Schools

By

Donald R. Smith

The World Wide Web has become the fibers that connect the world on all fronts. Business depends on the internet, Independent citizen depends on the internet, and most schools depend on the internet. This includes Colleges, Universities, and Divinity and Theology Schools. This World Wide Web has made it possible whereby education institutions can offer education across state lines. Therefore, it should not seem strange that this technology has brought about educational advancement to educate individual all around the globe. This technology is well used in the United States of America educating its citizens. These students have diversity in the type, location, and cost of tuition. A student can be on the East Coast and receive education on the West Coast. As a result of this great technological advance, colleges and universities have increased the enrollment of students.  Theology and Divinity Schools have not been an exception to these great phenomena. Within the last 20 years, a great number of Theology and Divinity Schools have extended opportunities to offer training in various fields of Theology. Many of the Theology and Divinity Schools are able to allow students to gain a superb education just as students were sitting and listening to the instructors in the classroom. However, all Theology and Divinity Schools are not alike. This applies to higher secular institutions as well. In addition, some have mastered the art of serving students with disabilities whereby others have no clue as how those types of students should be served. (Handorf, 2013) makes it clear that colleges and other institutions of higher learning have successfully enrolled and successfully graduated a number of disabled students in the last decade. This means some Theology schools understand the process, but others have work to do.  Therefore, Theology and Divinity Schools must reassess their overall School Strategic Plan and make adjustment that would support students who have disabilities. The primary age of these disabled students on average is 35 years of age. These students who have disabilities may not stand out as being disabled because most have a functional livelihood which includes work histories, jobs, families, and all of the related components that takes up a great deal of their time. Most of these adults even have a tremendous number of responsibilities in their respective communities where no one would even suspect they have had the disability labeled attached to them since elementary, middle, or high school. Since most Theology or Divinity School does not ask if such a disability exist, most students will not volunteer to yield this fact. Nevertheless, these disabilities do not stop them from applying to the vast number of Theology and Divinity Schools that dot the globe seeking a quality education in Theology domains.

Most of these students have a great desire to seek knowledge and understanding from a Godly and intellectual stand point. They want God to impart the wisdom they need, so that each will  be able to go out in the Kingdom and serve with distinction and honor.

The fact that students in rural areas and persons of limited physical disabilities can obtain a religious education is a great reward. Distance Education has produced great servants whereby they could serve their churches, temples, synagogues, or other instructions.   The problem with some Theology and Divinity Schools arise when students with disabilities are not served and educated at the optimum level. Consequently, Most Theology and Divinity Schools can provided a better delivery of service to students with disability if the schools itself understand the disabled student mode of learning and offer accommodations to support this mode.

It is safe to say that some Theology and Divinity Schools do not have an understanding of how to address adult disabled learner needs that may enter their respective institution seeking a degree. It does not matter if the school is large or small, great in financial backing, or possess the greatest intellectual minds; most schools have not prepared to teach students with disabilities. However, if a school is public and has a Theology school under its umbrella, these types of schools have to meet disabled student needs. These are the exception rather than the rule. However, many Theology and Divinity Schools can move in the right directions if proper planning and delivery mode are assessed and changes are made. (Harlow2006), believes these are static points that will separate those schools that would become a step above the others. In his article, he feels that schools graduation rates will improve and attrition rates will drop if needs of the adult disabled learners needs are met. He believes there will be very few “dropouts.” This belief is supported by an article in (Article, NSDOR, 2010) that also believes these dropout rates will get better for non-traditional and disabled learners.

Therefore, Theology institutions administrators, instructors, and board members alike must be willing to investigate the framework of their overall schools operation.

Every possible area should be examined such as what type of students, content of program, mode of delivery, instructor qualifications, and cost of program, monitoring system, and other components of a specific Theology or Divinity School.

It is this author’s opinion and belief that Theology and Divinity Schools should not just examine the efficiency of the overall program, but should also focus on students with   respect to learning needs and ways to help students with disabilities. Many Theology institutions have not taken into consideration that many of the adult learners who are enrolled in the Divinity instructions have had problems learning while in lower levels of school. At any given time during a learning cycle at a Theology, Divinity, or Seminary School, one can be sure three percent of all learners have had a disability or is presently labeled with at least one disability. These disabilities affect the student’s ability to learn. (Smith, 2013) gives insight as a professional in this area with 20 plus years of experience. He reports there are specific incident rates given in percentages for each fourteen disabilities recognized by the United States Department of Education. He reports that secondary education institutions have seen rates around three to five percent of a school population. These students with disability graduate from high school along with their peers an enter community colleges or state universities.

If these students continue in life, the disability itself does not disappear. Unless the student was tested out prior to exiting high school, that student is still deemed to have a disability. This would apply to the student adulthood regardless of age. Theology and Divinity Schools receive some of these students in their pursuit to obtain a Theology degree. This fact does not indict the students or the institutions that enrolled them as adult learners. The implication being made here is that Theology and Divinity Schools must find ways to address the individual student’s disability by becoming effective with the product they deliver to disabled students. These schools must start using accommodations to increase the individual student performance thereby preventing that student not to withdraw or dropout of school. (Street, 2010), wants educators to know that the normacaltures of specific disabilities significantly impact learners’ decision to persist or dropout of school. Therefore, this author believe, It is imperative to the welfare of the student that Theology and Divinity Schools become aware of the characteristics of at least two disabilities such as “Learning Disability and Other Health Impairment.”

Since these are the two major disabilities which impact the lives of most students, Theology and Divinity Schools will be well served if accommodations were made for students who exist in each respective school.   (Tung, 2012), clearly understands that the characteristics that defines a “Distant Learning Theology or Divinity School” are not the same for a traditional institutions of higher learning. However, he believes the dropout rate should not be so great as compared to secular institutions. He suggests that the “Distance Education” schools should monitor their students to a greater degree than brick and mortar institutions.  This idea is supported by (Ngoma, 2006). Therefore, this would improve the efficacy and avoid waste of time, money, and resources. (Jarrett 2012), who instructs Theology students, gives advice on his “Blog Site.” He states that students come to him all the time inquiring how they can improve in their overall studying. He suggests to students the first thing they should do is improve in the way they mentally approach their studies. His implication is that these are underlying issues with students and if these issues can be resolve, students can develop and sustain positive study habits. These are the type of educational inputs the Theology schools as a whole should be sharing with students, but to a greater degree. Jarret makes a valid point with his positive input, however, this author believes that an assertion such as this can only be valid only if one is able to observe and asses these students on a daily basis.  If a student is enrolled in a Theology or Divinity School in a Distance Education mode over the internet, it is almost impossible for a deduction such as Jarrett’s insights to be made.

In the (Tung, 2012), one can find some proactive measures Theology and Divinity Schools could take to help improve the success rate of distance education learners. The research that is presented in this Journal is concrete. It gives strategies and tips on how to curve attrition and proactive measures to sustain a student through his or her education all the way to the examination of a doctoral thesis. This author supports the idea of helping students by proactive interventions. (Thung 2012), believes that if distant education instutions had a clear picture of their long distance learners, the instution could prevent and stop non–completions, withdrawals, and dropouts.  Many Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools have not realized there could be systematic problems within their own respective instution in respect to disabled students.

In specific, this author believes it is time for Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools to consider part of the reasons students are failing to complete assignments and dropping out are related mainly to student with comprehension disabilities. This author has had a tremendous amount of experience teaching students with various types of disabilities recognized by the United States Department of Education. He has a clear understanding of how these disabilities affect the learning of those who have an assigned disability. It is common knowledge that very few Theology, Divinity, and Seminary school are not part of a public system; therefore, they have no background to identify the characteristics. What this mean is that those institutions are not mandated to learn about and serve disabled students. Yet these students enter the respective Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools with no support or help to foster success.

However, if a school chooses to move in the direction of helping adult disabled learners who enter a Theology, Divinity, or Seminary school, there are several Theology, Divinity, Schools that have been serving disabled students for years.

Trinity Evangelical, Seminary School could be the place to benchmark. It could be the resource to gain a better understanding and build a profile on supporting each student with a disability. This particular Theology school has set-up a “Student Success Center” to help all students who have a disability become successful in their studies. This school truly acknowledges students with disabilities and yields a great number of accommodations to support each student (Smith, 2013). The goal for this particular school is to provide student with whatever it takes. If a student requires mentoring, a mentor is provided to assist the failing student, so he or she would be able to complete the task.   Other areas of support used are extended time to complete quizzes and tests, oral testing, quizzes and tests on audio tapes, and special locations to take a test.

Duke University has had a positive history of educating disabled Divinity students. This institution began with the inception of such students; they group them in housing so these students could help support one another. This is the precursor to providing the academic accommodations. In addition to Duke University, “Graduate Theological Union’ which is made-up of a consortium of 14 Theological and Seminary Colleges provides all its students with disability the support they need. These schools

have taken the guess work out of how to serve students with disabilities. Each has made a commitment that service to disabled learners would be one of their main priorities (Power, 2012).

This consortium of schools has gained a wealth of knowledge based on the decision the administrative arm made years ago. These acquired skill help promote the welfare of all their disabled students and allow them to be served with excellence. In fact, this Consortium has created an office for someone to manage the system. This person is given the title “Disability Resource Officer” whereby he manages all the day to day operations providing service for disabled learners. This particular officer keeps records of all disabled students, and he advises which accommodations are needed for each student. If private Theology, Divinity, Seminary schools have been called into their vocation of educating God’s people, these school should want to provide a better experience for their students. Therefore, Theology, Divinity, and Seminary school Presidents and deans along with other administrators must become aware of the needs of the adult learners who enroll in their respective school, especially from the perspective of the distant learners who has a bonafied disability. In the spirit of Christ, each school should want to operate in excellence. These schools should pray to God that he would give a revelation of the many gifts that each school has been endowed with to help in the ministry of educating his people. If these schools were Spirit led to be in existence, the art of delivery could be done in a more effective way. The need for change is imperative. (The National Center for Education, 2011), keeps record and monitors all four year colleges and the number of students who are pursuing a Bachelor degree. This organization examined the graduation rate of all four colleges and found there was a forty-one (41%) percent dropout rate. However, out of the fifty-nine (59%) percent who graduated, only fifty-one (51%) percent graduated within the required four (4) years. This author believes that Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools have similar rates. If this is true, schools should investigate why so many students are fallen by the wayside. If a Theology, Divinity, or Seminary school experience at least a 20% dropout the first year of a program, the system should be examined.  This should be the time for Theology, Divinity, and Seminary to start implementing a strategic backup plan to immediately address known issues. In addition, the concern for disabled students should be investigated as relating to this matter. If the institution does not have a strategic plan, each should start preparing to create a strategic plan. The institution must possess the required information. The idea of providing a program to address the need of disabled students who are enrolled in a Theology, Divinity, and Seminary can become a reality. This process should begin with the application process. Pertinent information is key and must be obtained. The undertaking will not be an easy one, but it will be worth all the effort that is put into the process. Finance may become the greatest barrier to implementing such a program. In addition, those who will be in charge of the day to day operation must undergo the required training in order to become the led manager to oversee the initial day to day operation. Likewise, those who will be writing the content and delivering the curriculum would require the same type of training. The administrators must be forward thinking on how the curriculum could be modified to meet the individual need of distance learners. Secondly, a plan should be formulated to gain as much information about the student that is pertinent to the education process. Thirdly, the Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools must reexamine all past data, especially the incompletion, withdrawals, and dropouts to identify a trend. Once a trend is identified, a record of possible causes should be written down to be addressed by action statements. (Hallinger 2003) concluded in his research that “relative few studies” have been done to quantify or find a relationship between hands-on supervision of the classroom and the instructions which are taking place within a classroom, but in a general since it is important. Once a private Theology, Divinity, or Seminary school becomes committed to addressing the needs of its disabled learners, the administrator must insure that all mandates agreed upon must be carried out. This idea of iniating such a program in a brick and mortar school should be less stringent than the distance education format. Meeting the need of students with disabilities is not limited to Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools.  (Redden, 2011) reports in the “Chronicle of Higher Learning” that eighty-eight percent of all colleges has reported enrolling students with disabilities. This includes junior colleges through universities. The report listed 700,000 students enrolled in college have some form or type of disability. This article list various types of accommodations used to help these students remain successful. However, no Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools were included in the data reported. If one can consider the fact that small Theology, Divinity and Seminary schools or cosmic samples of secular school, it can be surmised or deducted that disabled students are unknowingly on the roll. The Counsel of Exceptional Children supports this theory. Nevertheless, (Horowitz, 2004) each and every disability is manageable with accommodations.

On an average, the two most prevalent disabilities that affect a student’s ability to learn are “Learning Disability and Other Health Impaired.” It would be wise for administrators and instructors to become familiar with the characteristics of these two disabilities until the institution agrees to adopt a formal plan. Each disability has a different incident rate. This specific disability has an incident rate between 3% -5% of the exceptional population.

Learning Disability

(Ryan and Caldwell, ND   ) from the Kentucky Office for the American with Disability give a general understandable definition for “Learning Disability.” They write that this disability affect the way a person is able to understand or use spoken or written language. “Learning Disability can manifest in multiple ways such as difficulty in listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or doing math calculations.” People who have a learning disability generally possess the same intellectual ability of those who do not have a disability and is capable of the same academic achievements if accommodations are made.

It is well known that Reading comprehension, writing, and math are the game changers.

Other Health Impaired

Students who are assigned this category display limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems. The learner could have Attention Deficits Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, or other health problems which could be mental or physical. These conditions could have a devastating effect on students who choose to enter a Theology, Divinity, Seminary school or already enrolled in such a school.

This disability has gained momentum in being assigned to students within the last twenty years. This category can be more devastating than Learning Disability because it could include an array of deficits whereby many imitate characteristics of Learning disability. There is a wider spectrum of processing skills that affect a student across settings. These two disabilities interfere with the student’s ability to master content.  Even though there are other disabilities which could clearly affect the way student process information, these two disabilities are the prevalent ones that affect learning.

In general, schools such as Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools should be able to freely admit they do not have a clue as to the disposition of specific learning disabilities unless they or part of public university. In likewise fashion, they are not able to identify students with disabilities that could be easily determined easy by teachers and administrators who are trained to look for patterns within the content of the student’s work samples. However, if Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools had a process in place whereby background discovery could be used, most students learning problems could be immediately addressed to some degree. It is evident that students who have a disability need help even though they are adult learners. This author has seen the mental anguish of students who want to be successful in their academics, but have not been taught the correct coping skills. Many simply give up because there is no one to ask for help or the help is not adequate enough.

Research on Dropout Rates

(Street, 2010) examined and reviewed eight different studies which focused on dropout rates. The results of the study looked at five major areas that effected dropout rates: (1) internal factors of self-efficacy, (2) self- determination, (3) autonomy, (4) time management, and (5) external factors of family-organizational and technological support were found to be areas of significance. It is evident that Street understood attrition as he analyzed the studies. He believes if private Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools were to undergo such a large study as this, the dropout rates would be higher than the rates recorded in these studies for the brick and mortar schools. The review of his data also affirms what other researchers have known for years that most distant learners are older men and women. These distant learners are being affected by organizational and family commitments problems.  These problems can be divided into two major categories: (1) External problems and (2) Internal problems.   These are the most troubling areas for adult learners who are enrolled in distance education Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools. These two divisions of factors are defined by Street as follows. Internal factors include motivation and self-efficacy while External problems include the environment, organization, different levels of family support. (Kantrowitz 2004) completed a study funded by the Gate’s Foundation to investigate why students drop out of college. His research has some similar results to Street’s results. Some components were parallel while some were perpendicular. Fifty-eight percent of the students in Kantrovitize study who dropped out of college reported they did not received no family support while the remaining students who graduated did receive some support. This is key to Theology student; therefore, administrators should advise students to keep their families involved as they transition through their studies. Other areas that plagued students were work, tuition, and students struggling with reading.

If one considers all of the factors listed by Kantrowitz and Street and combine these with distance learning and learning a disability, there is no doubt that the curriculum and the mode of delivery should succinct. Since Theology students have made a decision to increase in their Godly knowledge, these potential graduates should receive the best a Theology and Divinity school have to offer. Most students enter these institutions knowing that they must continue to meet their daily routine and family situations, yet they still enter a Theology, Divinity, or Seminary school. These predicaments of disabled adult students who are trying to gain a Divine education through distance learning present a challenge for the student and the school alike. It is with reservation that this author states too many students educational journey could have been salvaged if some of the Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools had a better application process whereby the student could be better understood. If the school could have had a constant communication process in place, students could have been monitored properly. Equally, if students had a mentor who has progress well beyond the level of the mentee, these students would be able to contact them to give advice and guidance. Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools should poll students monthly to get a feel of the progress the student is making. These thing would clearly have a positive effect on the dropout rate.

It is this author’s belief that Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools put too much academic work on distance learning disabled students with or without disabilities. Most of these schools are not even accredited by the standards of the federal government which are mandated to secular school of higher learning to have such a stringent programs. Yet they want to use the same framework of secular schools. Many of these Theology school have the same semester requirements, same grading cycle, and almost charge the same tuition rate.

As a result of the model these Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools have adopted with hopes of appearing to be a place of distinction, many lose out on student enrollment.

This author wants to make an honest point of reference. Most of these schools are simply imitators. Many students have course which are repeated by number only, yet the Theology student is obligated to take. These are some of the same courses students took four or five months ago. Additionally, these theology institutions should go ahead and abide by the components of the “individual with Disability Education Act” since they have chosen to emulate these secular school.

(Health Resource Center, ND) reports there are well over 3,000 higher learning institutions planted in various places across the United States. Almost no Theology, Divinity, Seminary schools are included in this count. Why are these private Theology institution should not be following such an education path. There can be a better way to enhance a student’s educational experience helping a Theology student achieve his or her dream obtaining a Theology degree. There are a few of those schools around who are able to use non- traditional methods to assess a student. Seminaries such as Esoteric Theological Seminary out of Florida are one such institution. This is a quality school with tremendous resources. This Theological Seminary refuses to place undue stress on students. This institution has developed a special process to assess its students and deem those students worthy to receive a diploma and serve God’s people. The application process is friendly, response time is quick, and all the requirements are posted without hidden agenda. When a student has questions, the cofounder/president herself responds to the questions. This is ideal because this process eliminates confusion by the transferring of messages. This is an institution that has supporting information to help an individual get his or her ministry started (Smith, 2013).

Finally, Theology, Divinity, and Seminary should learn about the limited number of accommodations that could be employed for each disabled student who requires these accommodations. General accommodations such as allowing extra time to complete exams, allow exams to be given orally, allow exams to be placed on tapes, shorter test questions, test the students orally, take an exam in parts, or even allow family members to assist certain students with their exams.

Since the biggest difference of brick and mortar Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools and Distance Learning institutions alike must master the art of motivation.

. (Harlow, 2006), suggests that motivating the student through various modes of communication can be the key between success and failure. If the distance learning students who have a disability could be motivated through some form of communication, success is on the horizon. This communication will serve as a psychological adjuster allowing perceived draw backs and misunderstanding to disappear. Even if the student has not requested specific information, the institution should touch bases with the student to help keep his moral high. History of Behavior research clearly indicates the effectiveness of communication. From a general social cognitive perspective, a season graduate student does not require a great degree of maintenance, but a non-season students do require maintenance. This is true for students who have succeeded in previous long distance education.

Processes To Consider

Even though most Theology schools have a timeline, it should be modified for students who disclose a specific disability. Timelines are important for efficiency of operation from the institution point of view; however, it must be adjusted to be effective for some students. Insufficient time is claimed by must disabled students to be the greatest supporter of dropping out, many students have trouble managing their time and this affect dropout rates. Therefore, communication to monitor these students is essential and needed. (Harlow, 2006) states unexpected events in a student’s life can get him off course (sickness, death, divorce, job lost, etc.). He believes these types of changes can be destructive to the distance learner if not monitor by an advisor or someone from the institution. This is why a set communication process is necessary. Clearly, the Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools cannot be fully responsible for such activities that arise in the lives of its students, but the institution must support its students. (Hill, 2010) reports students who are pursuing a higher education faces a tremendous amount of pressures of life that could affect one education in general. If all things are equal, these pressures affect the Theology student as well. However, the Theology student should not feel defeated because he or she should know the way of prayer. He or she of all people should know prayer is able to turn things around. Like Job, we must be reminded that God let the righteous suffer like those in the world to demonstrate His (God) Sovereignty. He receives Glory even when His people are suffering because they preserve in the faith knowing “Christ‘s Blood” gives one power to overcome.

(Medina, 2006) makes it known that Higher Learning Institution have their own Internal and External problems which may include regulations that are mandated by a local or state government, as well as, internal operation within their walls which may or may not include space, value statements and philosophy, and other key factors. Like any other higher learning institution, Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools must reflect on their entire policy to provide quality service. (Medina, 2006) list three questions that should be asked of all institution.  (1) What are the major inputs to decisions making in delivering a program of service? (2) How do those inputs influence decisions about the service delivery ?, (3) What are the consequences for service delivery ? Medina believes these areas will define an organization (2002).

It is obvious that some of this modification cannot be incorporated in to a Distance Learning format, but there are ways to modify even these named accommodations.  If Theology, Divinity, Schools will get motivated and created an environment, the system itself would find a way to build upon itself. These Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools must formally accept the fact that part of the attrition rate is connected with learning problems that could be effectively address. (Harlow, 2006) believes when human innovation drives an entity to do its best, greater expectancy is derived. The Expectancy Model relates to one’s ability to performance task and one’s value of that task. When the questions are asked such as “can I do (expectancy) and why should I do this (value) sets this expectancy=value rate drives one to say I want continue in a task that does not yield in value. When higher learning institutions which included many Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools continue to explain to students why the content of study is important and how it can benefit disabled student toward completing the entire course of study. Most students will be motivated to complete the entire course of study. Likewise, if institutions do not find projected value in the course, mode of delivery, and content of at particular part of their program, then the institution should be willing to revise whatever is necessary to make that program effective.

Conclusion

Clearly the greatest responsibility is to foster a student’s learning experience in any Theology, Divinity, or Seminary school lies with the institution leadership team. (Ngoma 2006) makes it clear that the over-all responsibility and operation for the success and coordination of distance learning should be placed in the hands of a Distance Education Director. It is he who insures the institution provides what is advertised.  When the students apply, they should get what is advertised. Likewise the institution should provide the greatest learning experience possibly helping students achieve their goal obtaining a degree. It is this author’s opinion that Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools have done a good job so far in their operation; however, each institution must assess its performance. When men and women decided to give of their time to seek   formal Theological training, the institution which provides the services should accommodate the students whenever possible. Another area of concern is the high fees and stringent requirements many of these schools have in place. These system requirements should not be part of the plan when it comes to serving God’s people. This should be especially true for those schools that are not even accredited by federal government standards; however, these schools want to be like the secular schools.

These Theology schools should just deliver God’s word in an affordable and allow students to focus on the content rather than finance. However, I am not talking about free lesson or a watered down curriculum. Nevertheless, the courses should not be a

padded program. Too many Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools teach the same content over and over just with different course numbers and a few words changed. This author does not believe this is God’s way. Theology schools could provide students a greater advantage by providing students with more than a course sheet. If Theology, Divinity, and Seminary schools would create a “Cheat Sheet” with valuable information related to the mode of study, this would be ideal. There are some students who do not know how to fully approach the Bible. This even applies to those students who are not disabled and are keen in comprehension. Most students simply don’t know how to clarify relationships, assign division of thought, and analyze supporting statements of key concepts. In the same fashion, it would be helpful if students knew the six major approaches to the Bible. Lastly, the ideal Theology school should provide students with a list of helpful study texts such as “Bible Handbook, Bible Encyclopedia, Lexicons, and other valuable instruments or tell the student where he or she could get these books at wholesale prices.” These are important tool a beginning Theology student could use. It would definitely help those students who have a disability. Likewise, this tool will allow students to give the correct response to difficulty questions.

From the student’s perspective, he or she must be goal oriented. (Harlow, 2006   ) feels the student should be conscious and cognitive of what he or she is doing. The student should always ask himself or herself “what am I doing?” or am I doing this according to the instructions given?    These are key question which will drive students thinking abilities. Once disabled students apply good “learning strategies” to attack assignments, one could believe success is not far off. Likewise, (Varrassi, 2013) suggest students

should understand their disability and plan according. He also suggests students should investigate the Theology school before entering. (Warnack, 2013) simply believes seminary is only hard because of the daily activities students must balance. Even though family is very important, one must still make a commitment to what he or she freely chose to undertake. In addition, students must be reminded that the work they have embarked upon is “Kingdom Work.” If this is “Kingdom Work,” then the student must believe he or she has a King working on his or hers behalf. Students who have had a “Disability” label attached to them should feel free to enroll in a Theology, Divinity, Seminary school with hopes a school will support them if they let the school know they have suffered with such a disability.    The final analysis is that Theology, Divinity, Seminary schools must find an “effective process” to meet the needs of its distance education disabled adult students.

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I Donald Ray  Smith, Sr. gives my permission for the Esoteric  Theological Seminary to use this paper as the school deems necessary:  Donald r. Smith, Sr.

 

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